Tharu s have had lack of means of livelihood because their main occupation has been agriculture and farming. Therefore, Tharu s, in general, have been survived upon selling agricultural products and animal husbandry. Rice and wheat are the main seasonal crops for Tharu people. They are very busy with rice planting from mid-May till mid-July and then with wheat planting in mid-November till mid-January. The other main crops they product are maize, jute, lentils (red, black and green) and sugar cane. Tharu people also raise various kinds of vegetables: potato, radish, and mustard, green vegetables, beans, squashes, pumpkin, cauliflower, cabbage, ladyfinger and eggplant. They also sell wheat and maize to provide the daily necessities of family.
For their livelihood in ancient, they used to breed many kinds of livestock like Cow, Buffalo, Goat, Sheep, Horse, Deer, and Elephant. Tharu men were shepherds who used to tents many cow, buffalo and goat and Tharu women used to make milk, curd and sell them for their livelihood. Now No longer rearing elephant, horses rather used to rearing goat, cow and buffalo. These days’ young Tharu people are engaged in various employments. Some go abroad as foreign workers. Some are engaged in Nepal Army, and in various INGO and NGO offices. However, it doesn’t seem Tharu s currently have much trouble in getting food and managing daily life. They have enough land and field for cultivation, but haven’t been able to use the land adequately. If they could use land appropriately or wisely for variously croup cultivation, they could have enough income for their livelihood. Generally Tharu people do not want to invest their income in business, education and health. That is the reason why there are few people who have good education among Tharus.